Orange Bar

All electronic documents are provided for personal use only. Downloading a document should be considered a request by you for a single copy. Do not circulate or disseminate.


Gibson, E., Sandberg, C., Fedorenko, E., Bergen, L. & Kiran, S. (2015). A rational inference approach to aphasic language comprehension. Aphasiology, DOI: 10.1080/02687038.2015.1111994.

Jara‐Ettinger, J., Gibson, E., Kidd, C., & Piantadosi, S.T. (2015). Native Amazonian children forego egalitarianism in merit‐based tasks when they learn to count. Developmental Science, DOI: 10.1111/desc.12351

Singh, R., Fedorenko, E., Mahowald, K. & Gibson, E. (2015). Accommodating presuppositions is inappropriate in implausible contexts. Cognitive Science, Published online before print July, 2015. doi: 10.1111/cogs.12260.

Futrell, R., Mahowald, K., & Gibson, E. (2015). Large-scale evidence for dependency length minimization in 37 languages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doi:10.1073/pnas.1502134112.

Futrell, R., Mahowald, K., & Gibson, E. (2015). Quantifying word order freedom in dependency corpora. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Dependency Linguistics, Uppsala, Sweden.

Futrell, R., Hickey, T., Lee, A., Lim, E., Luchkina, E., & Gibson, E. (2015). Cross-linguistic gestures reflect typological universals: A subject-initial, verb-final bias in speakers of diverse languages. Cognition, 136, 215-221.



Gibson, E., Jacobson, P., Graff, P., Mahowald, K., Fedorenko, E. & Piantadosi, S.T. (2014). A pragmatic account of complexity in definite Antecedent-Contained-Deletion relative clauses. Journal of Semantics. First published online: July 10, 2014; doi: 10.1093/jos/ffu006

Piantadosi, S. T. and Gibson, E. (2014). Quantitative Standards for Absolute Linguistic Universals. Cognitive Science, 38(4): 736-756. doi: 10.1111/cogs.12088

S.T. Piantadosi, J. Jara-Ettinger, and E. Gibson. (2014). Children's development of number in an indigenous farming-foraging group. Developmental Science 17(4): 553–563. DOI: 10.1111/desc.12078.

Yoon, J.M.D., Nathan Witthoft, Jonathan Winawer, Michael C. Frank, Daniel L. Everett, & Edward Gibson. (2014). Cultural Differences in Perceptual Reorganization in US and Pirahã Adults. PLoS ONE, Published: November 20, 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0110225.



Levy, R., Fedorenko, E. & Gibson, E. The syntactic complexity of Russian relative clauses. Journal of Memory and Language, 69(4): 461-495.

Gibson, E., Bergen, L. & Piantadosi, S. (2013). The rational integration of noisy evidence and prior semantic expectations in sentence interpretation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 110(20), 8051-8056, doi:10.1073/pnas.1216438110

Gibson, E., Piantadosi, S., Brink, K., Bergen, L., Lim, E. & Saxe, R. (2013). A noisy-channel account of cross-linguistic word order variation. Psychological Science, 4(7):1079-88. doi: 10.1177

Perrachione, T., Fedorenko, E., Vinke, L., Gibson, E. & Dilley, L. (2013). Pitch processing is shared between language and music. PLoS ONE, 8(8): e73372. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073372.

Frank, M., Tenenbaum, J. & Gibson, E. (2013). Learning and long-term retention of large-scale artificial languages. PLoS ONE, 8(1): e52500. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052500.

K. Mahowald, E. Fedorenko, S.T. Piantadosi, and E. Gibson. (2013). Info/information theory: speakers choose shorter words in predictive contexts. Cognition, 126: 313-318.

K. Mahowald and E. Gibson. (2013). Short, frequent words are more likely to appear genetically related by chance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Letter to Editor. doi:10.1073/pnas.1308822110

Fedorenko, E., Woodbury, R. & Gibson, E. (2013). Direct evidence of memory retrieval as a source of difficulty in non-local dependencies in language. Cognitive Science.

Gibson, E. & Wu, I. (2013). Processing Chinese relative clauses in context. Language and Cognitive Processes, 28(1-2), 125-155.

Levy, R. & Gibson, E. (2013). Surprisal, the PDC, and the primary locus of processing difficulty in relative clauses. Response to MacDonald. Frontiers in Psychology, 4: 229, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00229.

Gibson, E. & Fedorenko, E. (2013). The need for quantitative methods in syntax and semantics research. Language and Cognitive Processes, 28(1-2), 88-124.

Gibson, E., Piantadosi, S. & Fedorenko, E. (2013). Quantitative methods in syntax / semantics research: A response to Sprouse & Almeida (in press). Language and Cognitive Processes.

Here is the paper by Sprouse & Almeida that this paper is in response to.



Fedorenko, E., Piantadosi, S. & Gibson, E. (2012). The interaction of syntactic and lexical information sources in language processing: The case of the noun-verb ambiguity. Journal of Cognitive Science, 13(3): 249-285.

Breen, M., Dilley, L., Kraemer, J. & Gibson, E. (2012). Inter-transcriber reliability for two systems of prosodic annotation: ToBI (Tones and Break Indices) and RaP (Rhythm and Pitch). Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory, 8(2): 277-312.

Piantadosi, S.T., Tily, H. & Gibson, E. (2012). The communicative function of ambiguity in language. Cognition, 122, 280-291.

Brown, M., Savova, V. & Gibson, E. (2012). Syntax encodes information structure: Evidence from on-line reading comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 66, 194-209.

Frank, M.C., Fedorenko, E., Lai, P., Saxe, R. & Gibson, E. (2012). Verbal interference blocks exact numerical representation: Online lexical encoding as an account of cross-linguistic differences. Cognitive Psychology, 64, 74-92.

Levy, R., Fedorenko, E., Breen, M. & Gibson, E. (2012). The processing of extraposed structures in English. Cognition, 122, 12-36.

Fedorenko, E., Piantadosi, S. & Gibson, E. (2012). Processing relative clauses in supportive contexts. Cognitive Science.



Breen, M., Watson, D. & Gibson, E. (2011). Intonational phrasing is constrained by meaning not balance. Language and Cognitive Processes, 26(10), 1532-1562.

Frank, M.C. & Gibson, E. (2011). Overcoming memory limitations in rule learning. Language Learning and Development, 7(2), 130-148.

Gibson, E., Piantadosi, S. & Fedorenko, K. (2011). Using Mechanichal Turk to obtain and analyze English acceptability judgments. Language and Linguistics Compass, 5(8), 509-524.

Piantadosi, S.T., Tily, H. & Gibson, E. (2011). Word lengths are optimized for efficient communication. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Piantadosi, S.T., Tily, H. & Gibson, E. (2011). Reply to Reilly and Kean: Clarifications on word length and information content. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Scontras, G. & Gibson, E. (2011). A quantitative investigation of the imperative-and-declarative construction in English. Language, 87(4), 817-829.



Breen, M., Fedorenko, E., Wagner, M. & Gibson, E. (2010). Acoustic correlates of information structure. Language and Cognitive Processes, 25(7/8/9), 1044-1098.

Gibson, E. & Fedorenko, E. (2010). Weak quantitative standards in linguistics research. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14(6), 233-234.

This letter and its companion longer paper have generated some controversy.

Here is a response from Peter Culicover and Ray Jackendoff. We respond to this letter in the longer paper.

Here is a link to a recent paper from Jon Sprouse and Diogo Almeida.

Here is a link to Greg Hickok and David Poeppel's Talking Brains blog where an exchange between Ted Gibson and Ev Fedorenko on the one hand, and Jon Sprouse and Diogo Almeida, on the other hand, is posted.

Tily, H., Fedorenko, E. & Gibson, E. (2010). The time-course of lexical and structural processes in sentence comprehension. QJEP, 63(5), 910-927.

Nakatani, K. & Gibson, E. (2010). An on-line study of Japanese nesting complexity. Cognitive Science, 34, 94-112.

Perfors, A., Tenenbaum, J.B., Gibson, E. & Regier, T. (2010). How recursive is language? A Bayesian exploration. In H. van der Hulst (ed.) Recursion and human language. Mouton: DeGruyter: 159-175.

Fedorenko, E. & Gibson, E. (2010). Adding a third wh-element does not increase the acceptability of object-initial multiple-wh-questions. Syntax, 13(3), 183-95.



Fedorenko, E., Patel, A., Casasanto, D., Winawer, J. & Gibson, E. (2009). Structural integration in language and music: Evidence for a shared system. Memory & Cognition, 37(1), 1-9.



Frank, M., Gibson, E., Fedorenko, E. & Everett, D. (2008). Number as a cognitive technology: Evidence from Pirahã language and cognition. Cognition, 108, 819-824.

Supplementary materials for Frank et al. (2008): videos of Pirahã participants performing the matching tasks (success, failure)

Nakatani, K. & Gibson, E. (2008). Distinguishing theories of syntactic expectation cost in sentence comprehension: Evidence from Japanese. Linguistics, 46(1), 63-86.



Fedorenko, E., Gibson, E. & Rohde, D. (2007). The nature of working memory in linguistic, arithmetic and spatial integration processes. Journal of Memory and Language, 56, 246-269.



Fedorenko, E., Gibson, E. & Rohde, D. (2006). The Nature of Working Memory Capacity in Sentence Comprehension: Evidence Against Domain-Specific Working Memory Resources. Journal of Memory and Language, 54, 541-553.

Gibson, E. (2006). The interaction of top-down and bottom-up statistics in the resolution of syntactic category ambiguity. Journal of Memory and Language, 54, 363-388.

Watson, D., Breen, M. & Gibson, E. (2006). The role of syntactic obligatoriness in the production of intonational boundaries. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 32(5), 1045-1056.



Chen, E., Gibson, E. & Wolf. F. (2005). Online syntactic storage costs in sentence comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 52, 144-169.

Gibson, E., Desmet, T., Grodner, D., Watson, D. & Ko, K. (2005). Reading relative clauses in English. Cognitive Linguistics, 16(2), 313-354.

Grodner, D. & Gibson, E. (2005). Consequences of the serial nature of linguistic input. Cognitive Science, 29, 261-291.

Grodner, D., Gibson, E. & Watson, D. (2005). The influence of contextual contrast on syntactic processing: Evidence for strong-interaction in sentence comprehension. Cognition, 95, 275-296.

Warren, T. & Gibson, E. (2005). Effects of NP type in reading cleft sentences in English. Language and Cognitive Processes, 20(6), 751-767.

Watson, D. & Gibson, E. (2005). Intonational Phrasing and Constituency in Language Production and Comprehension. Studia Linguistica, 59, 279-300.

Wolf, F., & Gibson, E. (2005). Representing discourse coherence: A corpus-based analysis. Computational Linguistics, 31(2), 249-288.



Gibson, E. & Warren, T. (2004). Reading time evidence for intermediate linguistic structure in long-distance dependencies. Syntax, 7, 55-78.

Gruber, J. & Gibson, E. (2004). Measuring linguistic complexity independent of plausibility. Language, 80(3), 583-590.

Watson, D. & Gibson, E. (2004). The relationship between intonational phrasing and syntactic structure in language production. Language and Cognitive Processes, 19(6), 713-755.

Watson, D. & Gibson, E. (2004). Making Sense of the Sense Unit Condition. Linguistic Inquiry, 35, 508-517.

Wolf, F., Gibson, E. & Desmet, T. (2004). Discourse coherence and pronoun resolution. Language and Cognitive Processes, 19(6), 665-675.



Desmet, T. & Gibson, E. (2003). Disambiguation Preferences and Corpus Frequencies in Noun Phrase Conjunction. Journal of Memory and Language, 49, 353-374.

Gibson, E. (2003). Linguistic complexity in sentence comprehension. The Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. pp. 1137-1141. MacMillan.

Grodner, D., Gibson, E., Argaman, V. & Babyonyshev, M. (2003). Against repair-based reanalysis in sentence comprehension. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 32,141-166.

Hsiao, F. & Gibson, E. (2003). Processing relative clauses in Chinese. Cognition, 90, 3-27.

Wolf, F. & Gibson, E. (2003). Parsing: Overview. The Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. pp. 465-476. MacMillan.



Grodner, D., Gibson, E. & Tunstall, S. (2002). Syntactic complexity in ambiguity resolution. Journal of Memory and Language, 46, 267-295.

Roberts, R. & Gibson, E. (2002). Individual differences in sentence memory. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 31(6), 573-598.

Warren, T. & Gibson, E. (2002). The influence of referential processing on sentence complexity. Cognition, 85, 79-112.



Pearlmutter, N.J. & Gibson, E.  (2001). Recency in verb phrase attachment. Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27(2), 574-590.



Gibson, E. (2000). The dependency locality theory: A distance-based theory of linguistic complexity. In Miyashita, Y., Marantz, A., & O'Neil, W. (Eds.), Image, language, brain (pp. 95-126), Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Gibson, E. & Pearlmutter, N. (2000). Distinguishing serial and parallel parsing. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 29(2), 231-240.

Kaan, E., Harris, A., Gibson, E. & Holcomb, P. (2000). The P600 as an index of syntactic integration difficulty. Language and Cognitive Processes, 15(2), 159-201.



Babyonyshev, M. & Gibson E. (1999). The complexity of nested structures in Japanese. Language, 75(3), 423-450.

Gibson, E., Pearlmutter, N. & Torrens, V. (1999). Recency and lexical preferences in Spanish. Memory and Cognition, 27(4), 603-611.

Gibson, E. & Schütze, C. (1999). Disambiguation preferences in noun phrase conjunction do not mirror corpus frequency. Journal of Memory and Language, 40, 263-279.

Gibson, E. & Thomas, J. (1999). Memory limitations and structural forgetting: The perception of complex ungrammatical sentences as grammatical. Language and Cognitive Processes, 14(3), 225-248.

Miyamoto, E.T., Gibson, E., Pearlmutter, N.J., Aikawa, T., & Miyagawa, S. (1999). A U-shaped relative clause attachment preference in Japanese. Language and Cognitive Processes, 14(5/6), 663-688.

Schütze, C. & Gibson, E. (1999). Argumenthood and English Prepositional phrase attachment. Journal of Memory and Language, 40, 409-431.



Gibson, E. (1998). Linguistic complexity: Locality of syntactic dependencies. Cognition, 68, 1-76.

Gibson, E. & Broihier, K. (1998). Optimality Theory and human sentence processing. In Barbosa, Fox, D., Hagstrom, P., McGinest, M. & Pesetsky, D. (Eds.), Is the best good enough (pp. 157-192), Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Gibson, E. & Pearlmutter, N. (1998). Constraints on sentence comprehension. Trends in Cognitive Science, 2, 262-268.

Patel, A.D., Gibson, E., Ratner, J., Besson, M. & Holcomb, P. (1998). Processing grammatical relations in language and music: An event-related potential study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 10(6), 717-733.



Gibson, E. & Thomas, J. (1997). The complexity of nested structures in English: Evidence for the syntactic prediction locality theory of linguistic complexity. Unpublished Manuscript.

Phillips, C. & Gibson, E. (1997). The strength of the local attachment preference. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 26(2), 323-346.



Gibson, E., Pearlmutter, N., Canseco-Gonzales, E. & Hickok, G. (1996). Recency Preference in the Human Sentence Processing Mechanism. Cognition, 59, 23-59.

Gibson, E., Schütze, C., & Salomon, A. (1996). The relationship between the frequency and the complexity of linguistic structure. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 25(1), 59-92.



Gibson, E., Hickok, G. & Schütze, C. (1994). Processing empty categories: A parallel approach.  Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 23(5), 381-406.

Gibson, E. & Pearlmutter, N. (1994). A corpus-based analysis of psycholinguistic constraints on PP attachment. In Clifton, C., Frazier, L. & Rayner, K. (Eds.), Perspectives in sentence processing (pp. 181-198). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Gibson, E. & Wexler, K. (1994). Triggers. Linguistic Inquiry, 25(3), 407-454.



Gibson, E. & Hickok, G. (1993). Sentence processing with empty categories. Language and Cognitive Processes, 8(2), 147-161.



Gibson, E. (1991). A computational theory of human linguistic processing: Memory limitations and processing breakdown. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis.