loadExamples - reads an example file into an example set


    loadExamples <file-name> [-set <example-set> | -num <num-examples> |
        -exmode <example-mode> | -mode <load-mode>]


This command loads examples from either a binary or text example file into an example set. If the file name ends in .gz, .bz, .bz2, or .Z it will automatically be decompressed. If no set name is specified, the name of the example set will be the root of the file name (without the path or extensions). Otherwise the examples will be loaded into the specified set. As with most file reading commands in Lens, the file may be a normal file name, standard input ("-"), a Tcl channel, or a pipe.

If the example-mode is specified, it will set the way in which examples will be selected when training or testing with this set. The example selection mode can also be set with the exampleSetMode command. The example mode should not be confused with the set loading mode, which is explained below.

There are two basic forms of this command, stored and piped. Stored is the normal behavior. It will load the examples from the file and store them in the example set. There are three forms of stored mode behavior, explained below. If num-examples is specified, only that many examples will be loaded. Otherwise the entire file will be loaded. If the file is a normal file or a pipe, it will then be closed.

In piped mode, which occurs when a load-mode of PIPE is given, no examples are actually loaded. The example set header will be read and then the file or pipe will be left open. Subsequently, whenever an example is needed it will be read from the file and only stored temporarily. This is most useful when working with a program that generates examples on the fly. If a Tcl channel is used, it is possible to create a two way pipe that will choose the next example based on some input, such as the output of the network on the previous example. In piped mode, the file or pipe will remain open until the example set is deleted, a new pipe is opened with this command, an error occurs, or the pipe is exhausted. If the pipe is exhausted and the example set's pipeLoop flag is set to TRUE, which is the default, the pipe will be re-opened automatically. Note that stored mode could read from a pipe and piped mode could read from a file. The difference is only whether the examples are loaded all at once or one at a time.

Piped mode can read either text or binary examples. The pipe must begin with the same header that a normal example file uses. Unlike normal files, however, there must be a newline at the end of each example with piped text input. The pipe may be buffered so any program producing examples should probably flush its output after each example, particularly if the pipe is two-way. If the example set already exists and has some examples stored in it, the examples will remain there if a pipe is opened. The examples can only be accessed if the example selection mode is change to something other than PIPE using the exampleSetMode command.

In stored mode, the default behavior if a set with the same name already exists is to silently abort. This is typically what one would want if one were using the command in a network initialization script file that might be run repeatedly. Alternately, one of two additional modes may be specified: REPLACE or APPEND. The mode name may be abbreviated to the first letter. In REPLACE mode, an existing set of the same name will be discarded and the example file reloaded. In APPEND mode, the examples will be added to the existing set. This is convenient for concatenating multiple example files as the user need not worry about removing the headers. Both the default mode, REPLACE, and APPEND are all stored modes.

If the new example set is compatible with the active network and the active network has no training set, the network will use the new set as its training set. If the network has a training set but no testing set, the new set will automatically become the testing set.


To read the file "Examples/digits.ex.gz" into the example set "digits":

    lens> loadExamples Examples/digits.ex.gz

To append 100 examples from the file "set2.ex" to "big set":

    lens> loadExamples set2.ex -s "big set" -n 100 -m A

To begin reading from the pipeline "generateStuff | formatExamples":

    lens> loadExamples "| generateStuff | formatExamples" -s mySet -m PIPE

To read from a Tcl channel:

    lens> set file [open myFile]
    lens> loadExamples -$file -s mySet


useTrainingSet, useTestingSet, deleteExampleSets, moveExamples, saveExamples, open, exampleSetMode, General File Usage, Example Files

Last modified: Wed Nov 15 11:13:26 EST 2000